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Old 11-04-2014, 09:10 AM   #1
DF Sales&Marketing
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Join Date: Apr 2007
Member Number: 207
Posts: 269
Default 7.3L - 6.0L International/Powerstroke Engines

Note:
this is an informational post for those of you who have, or have known about some of the problems with these engines and what led Ford to drop International after it developed it's own 6.7l diesel...which does have some quirks as well.


6.0l International/powerstroke engines proved to be problematic

The 6.0l power stroke had a terrible reputation since its birth in 2003. I am sure that if you follow the diesel community, you will know that the 6.0l engines have suffered from quite a few plagues that have troubled them since their existence. The extent of the repairs become overwhelming and owners tend to cut their losses and send them on down the road.
On the top list of repairs would be the head gaskets and egr coolers followed by stuck veins in the turbochargers, sticking injectors, high pressure oiling system leaks, faulty high pressure oil pumps, ficm (fuel injection control module) failure, oil coolers, and various sensors and actuators.
Because of these enormous failures, which can be quite costly, the 6.0l never lived up to the reputation of its forefather the 7.3l power stroke. The biggest question that I hear from customers is, “why did Ford replace the 7.3l with the 6.0l?” there are good reasons as to why the 7.3l power stroke had to be removed from service and these reasons brought about many changes in the power stroke platform.
In order to appreciate the power stroke, think about what was taking place in the early 1990s with the “big three’s” diesel programs. You have to remember, the cummins in the dodge truck was taking the market share in diesel power, so Ford needed something that was going to be able to compete with dodge. GM’s division, detroit diesel, also had been offering a diesel engine for the chevrolet truck, which had been existence since 1982, known as the 6.2l, which ran in production until 1993. GM never did introduce the 6.2l as a powerhouse, but more for fuel efficiency.

customer demands
Because there were greater demands for more fuel economy, power and lower emissions in the 90s, International created the power stroke to meet these demands. By 1994 all diesel engines would be required to meet emissions demands by lowering the nox (nitrogen oxide) gas coming from the tailpipe.
The 7.3 power stroke would incorporate one device known as a doc (diesel oxidation catalyst) also referred to as a catalytic converter. With the engine being electronically controlled and a doc, emissions demands along with power and economy could be met.
The heui (hydraulically actuated electronically controlled unit) system consists of five major components in order for the engine to operate properly. These are the pcm (powertrain control module), idm(injector driver module),high-pressure oil pump, ipr (injector pressure regulator), and the injectors.
The pcm monitors eight sensors from the engine and controls the operation of the fuel system. Each sensor generates a signal voltage from a specific engine function, which is relayed back to the pcm through the wiring harness.

The eight sensors are:
apps– accelerator pedal position sensor
cmp - camshaft position sensor
icp - injection control pressure
map - manifold absolute pressure
eot - engine oil temperature
iat - intake air temperature
baro - barometric pressure
ebp - exhaust back pressure
using these eight sensors, the pcm will control the engine’s performance with two actuators. The actuators receive electrical signals from the pcm, which in turn will move the actuator causing a change in controlled function.
The two actuators are:

ipr - injection pressure regulator
ebpr - exhaust back pressure regulator
expiration dates

now that there has been a crash course on how the 7.3l power stroke engine functions, we can examine why it became extinct. The race among the manufacturers was in full swing to bring their diesel engines up to compliance by the year 2004. Even though the 7.3l did landmark the Ford truck, the engine would fail to be emissions compliant for 2004.
Nox gas being emitted from mid-sized diesel engines was still the target. A second tier of emissions regulations were going into effect and efficiency would also become a factor. The easiest solution at this time to lower nox gas was the use of the egr (exhaust gas recirculation) valve.
Under normal operating conditions when exhaust gas is re-introduced into the engine, nox gas is reduced. The problem is exhaust gas lowers the efficiency. When the engine is running, oxygen is entering the turbo and compressed into the engine’s cylinders. The diesel fuel is injected and the flame front produces a tremendous amount of heat. If the egr valve is open, the exhaust gas has displaced the oxygen entering the cylinders and lower combustion temperatures occur. This effect May lower nox, but the trade off is incredible.
Not only do you get a cooler burn so the efficiency drops, but soot becomes problem. Lower combustion temperatures produce soot, which tends to clog everything up. Even though there has never been any statistics released on the engine’s efficiency drop from egr, some research has proved that there can be as much as a 3% power decrease. Although the 7.3l was a reliable engine, it was not all together efficient. Introducing exhaust gas back into the 7.3l would prove to be disastrous in trying to overcome emissions regulations. In order to meet these demands, International took a whole new approach; inventing the 6.0l powerstroke.


adding sensors
Now for the 6.0l engine, there are more sensors and actuators that are used by the pcm then that of the 7.3l, the reason for the increase in the electronics is for more control of the engine.
Demands for more specific fuel calibration become a factor when the object is to lower emissions. Additional sensors and actuators provide more feedback and the ability for more precise control of engine functions. In addition to the eight sensors found on the 7.3l, the 6.0l has four additional. Also, there are three more actuators controlled by the pcm.

The four additional sensors are:
ect - engine coolant temperature
ckp - crankshaft position sensor
egrvp - exhaust gas recirculation valve position
maf - mass air flow
iat(2) -intake air temperature sensor #2

the three other additional actuators are:
egr - exhaust recirculation valve
vgtcv - variable geometric turbo control valve
gpcm - glow plug control module
wrapping up
something to mention here is that the 6.0l power stroke diesels are often associated with premature head gasket failure. Head gasket failures often result in engine damage due to leakage of combustion gasses into the engines cooling system. Some engines have seen combustion of leakage as early as 50,000 miles. Most of these engine see heavy loads and severe service life in which the original multi-layer steel gaskets tend to fail.

__________________________________________________ _

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dick floryanowich
field service representative
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